Why can miscellaneous grains reduce cardiovascular disease? What foods can be counted as "miscellaneous grains"?

  The idea of coarse cereals has a long history. As early as more than 2,000 years ago, in the book Huangdi Neijing, the principle of balanced diet was put forward, in which coarse cereals refer to "rice, adzuki beans, wheat, soybeans and millet", which shows that coarse cereals have played an important role in diet since ancient times. So, what kinds of grains do miscellaneous grains include?

  Generally, it refers to cereal crops other than rice, wheat, corn, soybean and potato, in which cereal grains mainly include sorghum, oats, millet, quinoa, buckwheat, etc., and bean grains mainly include mung beans, adzuki beans, kidney beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils.

  Compared with polished rice, which nutrients of miscellaneous grains are more abundant?

  Miscellaneous grains are rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and a variety of bioactive substances, with high nutritional value. Compared with polished rice, miscellaneous grains are richer in protein, insoluble dietary fiber, B vitamins and trace elements such as calcium, magnesium and iron.

  1. protein

  Protein is rich in coarse cereals, especially leguminous coarse cereals, and protein is as high as 20%, which is a good source of plant protein. Cereal protein generally lacks essential amino acids — — Lysine, while miscellaneous beans contain high lysine. When they are eaten together, they can make up for the shortage of cereals and improve the overall utilization rate of protein.

  2. Dietary fiber

  Miscellaneous grains are also rich in dietary fiber, which can not only increase satiety, control weight and lose weight, but also enhance intestinal function and improve constipation, which is also very helpful for lowering blood lipid and protecting blood vessels.

  3. Vitamins and minerals

  Coarse cereals are rich in B vitamins, and the contents of minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc are much higher than those of refined rice. These nutrients play a very important role in maintaining the normal function of the body. For example, B vitamins generally participate in various physiological processes in the body in the form of coenzyme, which is an indispensable substance to promote metabolism in the body and convert sugar, fat and protein into energy. Calcium can form a strong skeleton to support the whole body and protect the heart, lungs and teeth. Iron is the raw material of cells and participates in the synthesis of hemoglobin, myoglobin and some enzymes in the body. Zinc can promote growth and tissue regeneration, promote vitamin A metabolism, and participate in immune function.

  4. Other plant active ingredients

  Coarse cereals are also rich in phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and phytosterols, which have strong antioxidant biological activities.

  In addition to reducing cardiovascular diseases, what are the effects of miscellaneous grains?

  1. Reduce the risk of cardiovascular metabolic diseases.

  Studies have shown that a higher intake of miscellaneous grains is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and ischemic stroke. For every 100g/day increase in intake of miscellaneous grains, the risk of diabetes and ischemic stroke is reduced by 14% and 13% respectively.

  2. Regulate blood sugar

  Miscellaneous grains contain many plant active ingredients that can reduce blood sugar concentration, including polysaccharides, flavonoids, dietary fiber and so on. These plant active ingredients are helpful to delay the digestion and absorption of food, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and thus play a role in preventing or slowing down the increase of blood sugar in the body.

  3. Regulating blood lipids

  Coarse cereals are rich in dietary fiber and polyphenols, which can reduce the plasma cholesterol level by reducing the absorption of cholesterol in the diet and promoting the excretion of cholesterol, or by slowing down or reducing the fat absorption.

  4. Promote intestinal health

  The rich dietary fiber contained in coarse cereals can hold water, adsorb water molecules in the intestine, increase the volume of feces, promote food residues or toxins to move in the intestine and excrete them quickly, which is helpful to prevent constipation and reduce the risk of rectal cancer. The plant polysaccharides contained in it are decomposed and utilized by intestinal flora in the intestine, and fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids, which provide energy for intestinal epithelial cells and protect the intestinal barrier.

  5. Antioxidant activity

  Coarse cereals are rich in natural antioxidants, such as phenols, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, phytic acid, vitamin E, etc., which can help the human body to better resist free radicals and delay aging.

  How to open the correct posture of eating miscellaneous grains?

  1. The intake should be appropriate

  China residents’ dietary guidelines recommend that 50-150g of whole grains and legumes should be consumed every day, among which whole grains and legumes are the main sources of whole grains and legumes.

  2. Eat with thickness.

  Although the nutrition of miscellaneous grains is good, it cannot completely replace polished rice flour. Because of the high content of dietary fiber and resistant starch in miscellaneous grains, it will cause certain pressure on the gastrointestinal tract. Especially for the elderly, children and people with weak digestive function, the inedible dosage is too large. You can eat coarse cereals and polished rice flour together, and gradually increase the proportion of coarse cereals in the staple food according to your own physical reaction and taste acceptance. Healthy adults can eat 1/3 to 1/2 of the staple food every day.

  3. Fine coarse grains and diversified cooking methods.

  Coarse cereals are hard in texture, so they can be soaked for several hours before cooking to fully absorb water, and at the same time, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and saponin can be removed by soaking. The miscellaneous grains rice or porridge with soft and rotten taste can be made by using the miscellaneous grains rice function of electric rice cooker or pressure cooker, and it is also a good choice to make miscellaneous grains soybean milk or miscellaneous grains rice paste with soybean milk machine and wall-breaking machine.

  4. Gluten and beans are mixed and varied.

  The composition of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients contained in different miscellaneous grains is quite different, so it is more nutritious to eat them together. When cereals and beans are eaten together, amino acids can complement each other and the overall utilization rate of protein can be improved.

  Text/Qin Wen (Institute of Nutrition and Health, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention)

  Knowledge link

  Afraid of cardiovascular disease? These foods will be late if you don’t eat them.

  Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the world. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, nearly 18 million people worldwide die of cardiovascular diseases every year, accounting for more than 30% of the total deaths. Three points move, seven points eat. Many diseases are eaten diseases, and cardiovascular diseases are no exception. If you don’t eat right, the chances of high blood pressure, myocardial infarction and stroke are much higher than those who "eat". So, what is the right way to eat? Let’s take a look at a recent research conclusion published in the European Heart Journal, which is a joint research result from Fuwai Hospital in Beijing and McMaster University in Canada. If you want to help your parents and your friends with healthier cardiovascular system, prepare a small notebook quickly.

  These seven kinds of foods, if eaten in the right amount, can have stronger small hearts and blood vessels. (Note: 1 cup = about 240 ~ 250 ml, 1 ounce ≈ 28.3 grams)

  1. Fruits and vegetables: 4 to 5 servings a day.

  Quantity per serving: 1 apple/banana/pear; 1 cup of green leafy vegetables; 1/2 cup other vegetables

  2. beans: 3 to 4 servings per week

  Dosage per serving: 1/2 cup of beans or lentils.

  3. Nuts: 7 servings per week

  Quantity per serving: 1 ounce (about 28.3 grams) of tree nuts or peanuts.

  4. Fish: 2 to 3 servings per week.

  Quantity per serving: 3 ounces of cooked fish.

  5. Dairy products: 14 servings per week

  Quantity per serving: 1 cup of milk or yogurt; 1.5 ounces of cheese

  6. Whole grains: appropriate amount (for example, 1 serving per day)

  Quantity per serving: 1 slice of bread (40g); Half a medium-sized pancake (40 grams); Half-cooked (about 75-120g) rice/barley/buckwheat flour/coarse wheat flour/corn paste/coarse wheat or quinoa.

  7. Natural meat: moderate amount (for example, 1 serving per day)

  Quantity per serving: 3 ounces of cooked red meat or poultry meat.

  To sum up, the healthiest diet with high scores corresponds to the energy supply ratio of the three energy-supplying nutrients, which is roughly as follows: 56% comes from carbohydrate, 27% comes from fat (8.9% comes from saturated fat, 15.0% comes from unsaturated fat), and 17.2% comes from protein.

  After sharing the core information, let’s talk about the reference level of this study: the sample size of 245 thousand people; The sample covers 80 countries on 5 continents and regions with different levels of economic development. 21% of the participants come from high-income countries, 60% from middle-income countries and 19% from low-income countries, which is similar to the global population distribution; The average follow-up time was 9.3 years. It is by far the most diversified nutrition and health outcome study in the world.

  Text/Liu Suiqian (popular science worker, clinical nutritionist, member of China Nutrition Society)