Liberation of Yixian: The First Shot of Liaoshen Campaign

  In the spring of 1948, under the strong offensive of our army, the Kuomintang troops in Northeast China retreated to three isolated areas: Changchun, Shenyang and Jinzhou. On September 20th of the same year, the Third Column, the Fifth Division of the Second Column and the First Division of the Artillery Corps of the Northeast People’s Liberation Army quickly and covertly attacked Yixian from Liaoyuan, Dongfeng and Siping areas, unexpectedly compressed and surrounded more than 12,000 enemy troops on the defensive, including the 20th Division of the Kuomintang 93rd Army, local teams and landlord armed forces, and cut off their retreat to Jinzhou, thus opening the prelude to the Liaoshen campaign. Recently, the reporter interviewed several veterans who participated in the first shot of this magnificent war.

  There is only one goal for the army and the people.

  Yixiang County is the hub leading to the railway intersection of Jinzhou, Chengde and Shenyang. Nearly 6 square kilometers of the county seat has an ancient city wall with a height of 10 meters and a width of 3.5 meters. There is a moat with a width of 4 meters and a depth of 22 meters outside the wall. Since ancient times, it has been the throat of entering and leaving the customs, and it is a battleground for military strategists.

  At that time, Liu Yongzhi was the operational staff of the Northeast People’s Liberation Army (later served as the head of a artillery regiment stationed in Jinzhou). Although he is now an octogenarian, he still remembers the experience at that time. He said that the provisional 20th Division of the 93rd Army of the Kuomintang (KMT) defending the enemy in Yixian was a semi-American mechanical equipment unit trained by an American advisory group, with a total strength of more than 7,000 people, three quarters of whom were veterans, and had never been hit hard in the past. Major General Wang Shigao and Deputy Major General Runzhen Han are quite conceited about their troops. In addition, there are more than 5,000 local teams and landlords in the city. The enemy troops on the defensive are not only strong in Ma Zhuang, with excellent weapons and sufficient ammunition, but also build a large number of light machine gun positions with single bunkers on the periphery of Chengguan, build bunker groups and minefields by using independent villages and cemeteries on the periphery, transform Chengguan buildings into hidden castles, set up a large number of barbed wire, plum blossom piles, tripping ropes, etc., and dig out moats with a depth of 3 meters and a large number of light and dark shelters based on the ancient city wall, forming a vast and deep three-dimensional defense.

  After the Northeast People’s Liberation Army completed the siege of Yixian with superior forces, in order to find out the enemy’s defense situation, it sent a small number of troops to spy on the enemy’s troops, weapons and deployment. At the same time, various departments of our army launched a powerful political offensive against the enemy on the defensive, such as shouting, distributing leaflets and sending publicity materials through various channels. "Luo Youkun, the platoon leader of the 6th Company and 3rd platoon of the 2nd Battalion, 1st Battalion on the defensive, is a young man with a sense of justice. He is extremely dissatisfied with the Kuomintang army’s rampage and oppression of the people in the county town. After carefully reading the propaganda materials of our army, he secretly got in touch with our army in the frontier position. Just a few days before the siege, he led the infantry platoon and the heavy machine gun platoon to surrender, and our army took over his position, which provided convenient conditions for liberating the county town." Liu Yongzhi said.

  According to the information we have, our generals have made a comprehensive analysis of the war situation. Everyone agrees that there is a natural barrier of Daling River in the northwest, and the terrain in the northeast is too narrow to deploy troops. The terrain in the south of the city is open and blocked by a moat, but the terrain in the southwest is high, which is easy to observe. Although the southwest is the defense area with the strongest defensive firepower, our army can rely on the railway subgrade as a position, exert the powerful power of various artillery, and hit the defensive enemy with lightning speed. So, on September 26th, the generals decided to strengthen pre-war training and preparation while besieging and harassing the enemy on the defensive. On October 1st, they concentrated their fire on breaking through the enemy’s defense from the southwest of the city!

  At this time, Comrade Mao Zedong issued the "Operational Policy on Liaoshen Campaign" by electrifying the whole army, which greatly boosted the morale of the commanders and fighters. While carrying out actual combat drills in specific division of labor, various units began to dig trenches one after another. The 2nd vertical and 5th divisions dug all the way from the east of Songjiatun in the west of the city to the Yugoslav capital, with a total length of more than 7,300 meters. The 3rd vertical and 8th divisions and the 9th divisions dug all the way from the enemy’s southernmost bunker group to the wall, which provided a reliable guarantee for the troops to transfer, contact and break through in combat.

  In the pre-war preparations, the people also took active actions. In the PLA station, people steamed dry food and sent military shoes everywhere. Ma Zhancai, an old veteran of Liulonggou Township in Yixian who participated in this campaign, recalled: "At that time, more than 3,000 peasant children signed up to join the army in five days in four mountainous areas in the west of Yixian, and a new corps was formed, which could be added to the army at any time. Liulonggou donated 1.2 million Jin of rations overnight, and organized more than 3,000 stretchers to be transported with the army. Li Jingxin and other poor people in the south of the city actively took the initiative to be guides and draw maps for the siege troops … "The deep affection of the military and civilians, fish and water, flooded the land filled with smoke, and the military and civilians were united in one mind, with only one goal: to liberate Yi County and capture Wang Shigao alive!

  Nearly 100 officers and men were left with only 17 people, and the "steel company" was born.

  After the enemy on the defensive was surrounded, Wang Shigao, the enemy commander, was like a cat on hot bricks, and he was in a state of panic. He repeatedly asked his boss in Jinzhou for reinforcements. On September 24th, Fan Hanjie, the leader of enemy troops on the defensive in Jinzhou and the deputy commander of the Kuomintang Northeast "Suppression General", mobilized more than 4,000 troops of the 93rd Army to help Yixian in the north, only to find that he was surrounded and annihilated by my 8th and 9th columns near Qilihe River, and the surviving remnants fled back to Jinzhou.

  Jinzhou had no choice but to send planes to bomb Yixian every day to cheer for the enemy. However, according to the command of the headquarters, our army sent a large number of small units to use the trench as a cover to attack enemy strongholds and bunkers day and night, scaring the enemy not to light up or sleep, and shooting at random at the slightest sign of trouble. Before the siege of our army started, the defensive troops were exhausted and the ammunition was running out.

  Yang Haitian, then the platoon leader and later the division commander of a certain department in shenyang military area command, recalled: "At 10 o’clock on the 28th, Fan Hanjie sent eight planes to airdrop ammunition for defending the enemy in Yixian, which was severely bombarded by our anti-aircraft artillery group. The planes did not dare to fly low, but only threw it blindly at high altitude. Most of the ammunition fell on our positions and few floated into the city."

  The "generosity" of the "Transport Battalion Chief" and the enemy’s defensive forces gave us all the support, which further inspired the morale of our army. The enemy’s peripheral positions were recovered inch by inch by our army, and Yixiang County was like an island, which was just around the corner. According to the general attack plan, our army must clear all the defensive positions on the periphery on the 29th and 30th. On the morning of 29th, a gap was opened in the main position south of the city by our army. A battalion commander on the defensive was killed, and the enemy was even more flustered, and it was a mess up and down …

  At the same time, our army’s battle to conquer the outlying strongholds is going on fiercely. Wujiaxiao Temple is an important stronghold of the enemy’s western Yugoslav capital. Here, there is a reinforced battalion for defending the enemy, equipped with heavy firepower such as heavy machine guns and 60 guns, and five big bunkers, 21 small bunkers and four shelters have been built in Fiona Fang, 50 meters away from the stronghold, which are connected by criss-crossing traffic trenches, and there are back channels leading to the city.

  The task of conquering and sticking to this strongest fortress fell on the shoulders of the officers and men of the 14 th regiment and the 10 th company of the second column of our army. This heroic company, which was awarded the title of "invincible", all the commanders and fighters were ready to go. Wang Qiang, an old veteran of Jinzhou who participated in this battle, recalled: "On the afternoon of September 30, under the cover of our army’s artillery fire, the 10th company’s blasting group blew up eight enemy bunkers in succession and controlled a large section of the wall in the southwest corner of the city. However, the enemy in the southeast corner of the bunker violently counterattacked our army, and the roaring artillery fire made people unable to look up. The deputy company commander immediately ordered Zhang Zuopei, a second class soldier and an expert in blasting, to’ blow it up!’" Zhang Zuopei, with two explosive barrels, rolled a few on the spot, detoured to the right side of the bunker’s fire port, and sounded the explosive barrel … The smoke that blew up the bunker had not been cleared, and the enemy suddenly began shelling. I lost more than half of my ten officers and soldiers, and all the platoon cadres died. In the case of losing the command of the platoon leader, the squad leader Wang Fengjiang bravely took responsibility and directed the soldiers to beat back the enemy’s six counterattacks with grenades and submachine guns. When the enemy came back for the seventh time, Wang Fengjiang and his comrades-in-arms had run out of bullets. At a critical moment, the cook Lao Gao climbed into the position with a box of 60 shells on his back. As soon as Wang Fengjiang saw it, he immediately opened the shell box, grabbed the shell and unscrewed the safety cap. He threw the shell at the enemy group, and his comrades-in-arms followed suit. The enemy left a body and fled back to the county seat. "In this battle, I even nearly 100 officers and men, only 17 people. After the war, eight people, including Wang Fengjiang, were each credited with great achievements, and the tenth company was named "Steel Company" by the column.

  At the same time, our army’s attack on the outlying strongholds such as Nanguan, Dongguan and the railway station has also been quite fierce. In the battle against the railway station, Wang Shigao, the enemy commander, personally supervised the battle, but the stubborn enemy defenders failed to escape the fate of failure. In just over two hours, our army wiped out more than 400 people on the defensive at the station and killed the chief of staff of the first defensive regiment.

  On the 30th, the fierce battle to wipe out the peripheral enemy troops on the defensive lasted more than 4 hours and ended successfully. Enemy at the Gates, an army of all stripes, has become a turtle on the defensive.

  At 11 o’clock this evening, the enemy commander Wang Shigao called a meeting of all officers at or above the regimental level, and finally decided to lead the remnants to break through in the Chaoyang direction after dark on October 1, then turned to Suizhong and Xingcheng, and then moved closer to Jinzhou …

  After more than five hours of fierce fighting, the ancient city of Yixian was conquered.

  On the morning of October 1, 1948, in the general headquarters of the Northeast People’s Liberation Army on the mound south of Yixian County, the artillery commander Zhu Rui, the commander of the third column Han Xianchu and the political commissar of the column Luo Shunchu all waited quietly for the arrival of the general attack.

  Liu Yongzhi, then the staff officer of the three vertical operations, recalled that at 9 o’clock sharp, Han Xianchu raised his telescope and observed the uneven ground for a while, took out his pocket watch and turned his head to say to Zhu Rui, "Time is up." At Zhu Rui’s command, cannons of various calibers roared, and 100,000 rounds of artillery shells exploded in enemy positions, fortifications, artillery towers and city walls with revenge anger. In an instant, the city wall in the southwest of the city was "torn" to open a gap more than 40 meters wide. General Zhu Rui was very excited to see this scene in the telescope and ordered the artillery to extend and shoot. At this time, the troops ambushing in the west, south and east of the city stormed the city like tigers coming down the mountain. With the cover of the corner, streets and planes, the enemy concentrated all their firepower and fought fiercely with the enemy. The eighth company of the ninth division and the seventh company of the fifth division, in order for the troops to pass through the moat smoothly, the second class of the eighth company took the initiative to undertake the task of bridging the bridge. When the bridge was just about to be completed several times, it was destroyed by the enemy, but the soldiers became more and more brave and did not flinch. The soldier Wu Xi Road was shot 13 times, and he still insisted on fighting and loudly encouraged his comrades. The soldier Liu Manchang was shot in the abdomen and his small intestine was exposed. He still threw the last Grenade in his hand at the enemy group. Xie Laitang, a soldier, was stabbed by the enemy when climbing the city. He grabbed the bloody bayonet and climbed the city wall, and put a red flag on the top of the city … In the east of the city, the soldiers of the first battalion of our army went straight to the Hujia compound where the enemy’s third regiment command post was stationed, and beat back the enemy armored vehicles several times.

  At 12 noon, our army attacked the vicinity of the Bell and Drum Tower, and was resisted by more than 200 remnants of the enemy’s division command post. Zhang Feng, head of the 13th regiment of the Fifth Division (later commander of Lanzhou Military Region), ordered the Fourth Company and the Sixth Company to detour from both sides. The two companies threw smoke bombs and grenades into the courtyard of the enemy command post to blast the courtyard wall, and the soldiers rushed into the hospital at the same time, all of them annihilated the enemy.

  However, among more than 1,000 prisoners of war, Wang Shigao, the enemy commander, was not seen. Zhang Tuanchang ordered the search. Finally, Wang Shigao and Runzhen Han, the deputy commander, were taken out of a hidden bomb shelter by five soldiers. Wang Shigao, who has always been arrogant and arrogant, was unkempt, dusty and disheartened …

  At about 1: 30 pm, after fierce street fighting and hand-to-hand combat, our army captured the enemy county government, the last stronghold in the city. After more than five hours of fierce fighting, the whole battle in Yixian County finally ended successfully.

  In the tough battle in Yixian, more than 1,100 warriors of our army left their lives on this land forever. General Zhu Rui was one of the generals who died in this battle. He was the highest-ranking general of our army who died in the war of liberation.

  Liu Yongzhi recalled: "On October 1, the general attack on Yixian began. General Zhu Rui was very excited to see that the artillery he had created was playing so well in this tough battle. He said to commander Han Xianchu and political commissar Luo Shunchu,’ I’ll go to the front and have a look.’ Korea’s commander, luo commissar with one voice don’t let go. Zhu Rui said:’ I want to see how thick the city wall is, how many shells can be used to blast it, how to beat this ancient city wall better, and how many problems still exist at the impact point.’ The two leaders reluctantly acquiesced, but repeatedly told to pay attention to safety. When other generals of the artillery headquarters saw that Commander Zhu was going to the front, they all followed him. At this time, most of the siege troops entered the city, and the street fighting was in full swing. They came out from the headquarters and walked along a ditch. At this time, there was a remnant enemy shooting at them at the Laoye Temple in Nanguan. To prevent accidents, they went down to the bottom of the ditch and walked along both sides of the carriage road. General Zhu Rui unfortunately stepped on the mines buried by the enemy and died at the age of 43 … "

Editor: Li Yongchao

The film "Golden Finger" released the actor’s special feature Tony Leung Chiu Wai Andy Lau’s "Another Masterpiece in Performance" and scanned the code to read the mobile version.

  The film Goldfinger released a special feature of "High-end Bureau" actors today. Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau have cooperated again after 20 years, and the "old partner" is still full of tacit understanding. Tony Leung Chiu Wai bluntly said that "Hua Tsai is very professional and experienced", and Andy Lau said with confidence: "I think this work is quite mature." After the opening of the pre-sale, many fans bought tickets for the first time to lock the lucky seats of "getting rich for the New Year", thinking that the "pure gold" top lineup led by the double-film emperor was enough to worth the fare.

  The film Goldfinger is written and directed by Zhuang Wenqiang, supervised by Huang Bin, starring Tony Leung Chiu Wai, Andy Lau and Charlene Choi, starring Yam Tat-wah, Fang Zhongxin, Chen Jiale, Bai Zhi, Jiang Haowen, Taibao and Qian Jiale, and starring Yuan Yongyi in friendship. It will be rich on December 30th, and the pre-sale is in full swing.

  Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau reunited after a long separation, and the tacit understanding of cooperation remained the same after 20 years.

  From Falcon for the first time to Infernal Affairs, which has been popular so far, after many years’ absence, Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau, who are both kings in performing arts, finally co-starred in the film Goldfinger, once again bringing the audience the feeling of reunion for a long time. In the "High-end Bureau" actor special released this time, Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau are not unfamiliar when they play the opposite play. No matter what emotional state the other person throws, the other person can accurately receive and perfectly cooperate with the performance. Director and screenwriter Zhuang Wenqiang couldn’t help smiling when he recalled the shooting scene: "They have been talking about things when they were actors." Tony Leung Chiu Wai called Andy Lau a "very professional and experienced opponent". When talking about this cooperation, Andy Lau also said: "I think this is a very mature performance, and it is another masterpiece based on Infernal Affairs." As producer Huang Bin said: "Their tacit understanding is actually very consistent, so we call it chemical action."

  In addition, the film Golden Finger also gathered the golden cast of Charlene Choi, Yam Tat-wah, Fang Zhongxin, Chen Jiale, Bai Zhi, Jiang Haowen, Taibao, Qian Jiale and Anita Yuen, and joined this extravagant and rich money puzzle. Because the actors are old friends who have worked together many times, the shooting atmosphere is intimate and natural. Charlene Choi, who partnered with Andy Lau when she was a girl, had a new feeling and experience when she faced the re-cooperation between them in the movie Goldfinger after growing up. Andy Lau laughed and said: "She has never changed, and she feels so careless every day." Yam Tat-wah and Fang Zhongxin, the old actors, were both infected by the cheerful atmosphere at the scene: "We talked and laughed, and everyone cooperated quite happily."

  Two generations of actors collide with fresh sparks, full of expectations, dare to break and stand up, and create a luxury blockbuster.

  In the film Goldfinger, there are not only the well-known performances of the audience, but also many powerful young actors who contribute to the film. Chen Jiale, a young actor from Chen Jiale who plays opposite Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau, also frankly feels very lucky: "They are very good, chatting with our younger generation and giving us confidence." Tony Leung Chiu Wai and Andy Lau also praised the professional level of the young actors, hoping to have a fresh spark in the film.

  The film Golden Finger tells the story of Cheng Yiyan (Tony Leung Chiu Wai), a down-and-out young man, who made illegal money and power transactions by any means, and created Jiawen Group into a billionaire crocodile. Liu Qiyuan (Andy Lau), the senior investigation director, found the crime behind Cheng Yiyan and decided to put on record for investigation, but he didn’t expect the case to spread to the global financial market, so it took him fifteen years to pursue the case across the border. Many viewers have said that they will not miss the extravagant blockbuster of "getting rich" presented by the double-film emperor in the New Year’s Eve, and will meet their friends and go to the cinema to see the amazing truth of this sensational real case.

This decade, our film life | ten years, movies have changed them.

Special feature of 1905 film network In this decade, from fireworks to prosperity in the world, movies have always been in our lives. This decade, the film is life, life is film, this decade, our film life.

"After all, life is short. It’s only a few decades. It’s impossible to see all countries and all parts of the world, but through movies, we have seen a bigger world and more lives. If there is no movie in life, I feel terrible. "

In the past ten years, filmmakers’ views on movies have gone from far to near. The biggest change that movies have brought to her is to unconsciously grasp the place where she can empathize as an actor in the future: "I think movies have made me more real and richer as a person." The feeling of my first filming was first of all, and secondly, I tried my best to take care of what was in front of me first, but I couldn’t think of the future. "

From the beginning, Lang Yueting’s acting career can be described as a newborn calf who is not afraid of tigers and dares to challenge: "For me, I think maybe I can only shoot this scene in my life, and then there will be no future development as an actor. I always think so."

This movie is a difficult one for Lang Yueting. She doesn’t know how to prepare the role and how to play it well. During that time, every day in her mind, she thought about what the character’s childhood was like and how she came over as a teenager. Such brainstorming made her sleep badly every day: "This is a particularly good help for me. In fact, Hongxia can’t sleep well every day, so she tries her best to be close to her state psychologically. I didn’t know that there was a word called biographies, but I was very pleased to know that I was really doing this. "

It is precisely because of the jitters and treading on thin ice in the first two plays that Lang Yueting was afraid to define the job as an actor for herself from the beginning, and later she could naturally introduce: Hello, everyone, I am an actor Lang Yueting. But it didn’t take long for the film to make her so worried again that she didn’t know how to start, because she had never played a real story. In the past, she could make the fictional character close to herself or find something in common with the character, but in reality, she couldn’t find something in common with Huang Wenxiu: "After the role was played, I recorded a program in which I talked about a lot of knowledge about planting kiwifruit and picking sugar oranges. This is something I really knew. Huang Wenxiu had to find out at that time because he wanted to develop a rich industry for the village."

Wang Ying, a veteran movie fan, has been married in Beijing for almost fifty years. When her family first moved here, the reputation of the China Film Archive was not as loud as it is now. Occasionally, acquaintances and friends sent tickets to her, so she would go and have a look. Wang Ying’s children are engaged in the mobile communication industry, and they will urge Wang Ying and his wife to learn smart phones, so as not to be eliminated by history. When Wang Ying went to the China Film Archive to buy tickets in the previous way, the movie tickets for classic films had been robbed by fans online. She could only queue up at the window for two hours and buy two movie tickets: "I thought, no, I have to learn smart phones. Later, I began to learn how to grab tickets online. I saw it a few days ago and bought a Huimin ticket for ten yuan. I didn’t expect the effect to be so good. "

As a policeman, Wang Ying felt heartfelt admiration for the actors when she watched "Fight Against the Black", and their interpretation of the police made her feel good after reading it. Besides watching movies on the spot, Wang Ying has also experienced the Cloud Cinema. She can enjoy watching movies at home with a little finger flick, but she is a bit nostalgic and prefers to go to the cinema to enjoy her favorite movies. Wang Ying went to the cinema to support her favorite movies, while her lover silently supported her hobbies behind her back. When watching movies in Wang Ying, the dog ball at home was taken care of by her lover, and cooking became his job. Living in such an environment with love and a big screen, when Wang Ying was chatting with his neighbors, the topic could not be separated from movies.



China and the world have changed each other since China’s entry into WTO 15 years ago.

  CCTV News:Today is the 15th anniversary of China’s accession to the WTO. In the past 15 years, what impact has China’s entry into WTO brought to China’s economic development? What does China’s entry mean to the world economic and trade system?

  On November 11th, 2001, in Doha, Qatar, Shi Guangsheng, then Minister of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation of China, signed on behalf of the China government at the ceremony of China’s accession to the WTO.

  Great changes have taken place in China itself and even in the world since its entry into WTO 15 years ago.

  Looking back on the past 15 years, China has made great progress in economic development, system construction and participation in international governance, but at the same time, it also needs to face up to the problems such as the increase of trade friction caused by changes in external environment.

  First of all, by joining the WTO and connecting with the world, China’s economy will grow under the global competition.

  On the eve of China’s entry into WTO, China is the sixth largest economy in the world. Now, China has become the world’s second largest economy, the largest trader of goods, and the second largest foreign investor, with a per capita GDP of nearly 8,000 US dollars. This series of achievements can directly prove China’s great progress since its entry into WTO.

  Entering WTO is an important step for China to integrate into the world market, which is conducive to attracting foreign investment, promoting exports and promoting economic development. Therefore, the membership of WTO is called the stabilizer and accelerometer of China’s economic take-off. In the process of China becoming the world’s factory, China enterprises have also learned to better coordinate the domestic and international situations, make better use of the two markets and resources, and enhance new development momentum, add new impetus to reform and create new competitive advantages in the opening up.

  Secondly, after China’s entry into WTO, the development of China has benefited the whole world and achieved a win-win situation.

  After China’s entry into WTO, China has not only realized its own development, but also brought more development opportunities to the world. Lamy, former Director-General of WTO, once commented that China’s entry into WTO has brought great changes to world trade, and many countries have also gained a lot with China. For example, US exports to China increased from $19 billion in 2001 to $116.1 billion in 2015; The trade volume between China and Africa increased from 10.8 billion US dollars in 2001 to 179 billion US dollars in 2015.

  Since China’s entry into WTO, China has been unswervingly opening wider to the outside world and striving for mutual benefit and win-win results. By implementing a firm opening-up strategy and constantly creating a more comprehensive, deeper and more diversified opening-up pattern, China’s total import in 2015 reached US$ 1.68 trillion, creating tens of millions of jobs for its trading partners. At the same time, China’s inexpensive goods have also brought great benefits to foreign consumers. It is worth mentioning that at present, China’s contribution rate to world economic growth is more than one quarter, and it has been the biggest engine of global economic growth for many years.

  Third, with the gradual deepening of economic and trade ties with the world, China no longer passively accepts the international economic and trade framework, but begins to actively participate in the formulation of rules.

  Since China’s entry into WTO, the economic and trade interaction between China and the outside world has continued to deepen. At first, China could only passively adapt to the terms of international trade. Today, China’s position in world trade has been on a par with that of the United States and Europe. Especially after the financial crisis in 2008, China has made the greatest contribution to global economic growth, which also highlights the importance of China in the global trade pattern. China has begun to actively promote the construction of a more just and reasonable international order, including trade order.

  China is a participant, contributor and builder in the world trade system. The construction of the "the belt and road initiative" initiative is the "China Program" to promote global development cooperation. This program does not replace the existing cooperation mechanism, does not challenge the existing international economic system, and is a useful supplement and improvement to the existing international mechanism. The goal is to achieve common development and is committed to promoting countries to expand mutual market opening and trade and investment facilitation.

  The global trade environment has changed, and challenges and opportunities coexist.

  On the other hand, we should also see that the international trade environment has changed a lot in the past 15 years. The deep-seated impact of the international financial crisis still exists for a long time, and the external environment is unstable and uncertain, which leads to the weak growth of global economy and trade.

  In the first five years of China’s accession to the WTO, the growth rate of global trade was about 1.8 times that of the world economy, but now the growth rate of global trade has been lower than that of the world economy for four consecutive years. Economic globalization has experienced twists and turns, protectionism and inward-looking tendencies have risen, and the multilateral trading system has been hit. This situation poses a new challenge to China’s foreign economic ties. To cope with this situation, China should take the lead in building an open world economy and continue to promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation.

  完成产业升级 迎接新的挑战



  文丨央视评论特约撰稿 王亚宏

Things related to life: archaeology, food, and fireworks.

Fireworks in the bones of the documentary program "Things Related to Life" ep01

Tik Tok Life Service produced Figure jointly presented.

There are many key words about the commonness of China people, and "Food is the most important thing for the people" always ranks among the top. Even when we shout "Only food and love can live up to our expectations", "food" even precedes "love".

With the development of the times, shop-visiting people use the lens to show a variety of unique delicacies and lifestyles, soothe people’s hearts, and link foreign land and hometown, present and past, reality and dreams.

"Things Related to Life" was produced by Tik Tok Life Service and jointly presented by Figure. Liu Yiwei, a traditional media person, was invited to pay a return visit to explore the story of a shop-spotter who discovered shops and shopkeepers in a hidden corner of the city, and to show the influence and change of this new professional group on the life in the neighborhood.

Through the wonderful collision of the three, it brings out different life stories and shows the fireworks and warm blood in the world.

In the first episode, Liu Yiwei flashed Nanjing, the ancient capital of the Six Dynasties, looking for "Fireworks in the Bones".

"Lonely Gourmet" more suitable for China baby’s physique "

Who would have thought that, as a former food program "Top Stream", Liu Yiwei and this episode visited the protagonist and the food detective Bo advocated Liangren with a little formality at first sight.

As a "novice" who started publishing short videos in late July this year, Zhang Liangren’s appearance seems to have no connection with the words "gourmet shop": thin figure, gray temples, cap, black half-rimmed glasses and pedant style-if it must be described metaphorically, he is more like the director of the high school guidance office in the stereotype.

Zhang Liangren, 54 years old, is indeed a teacher by profession, and he is not an ordinary teacher. He is a professor and doctoral supervisor in the Department of Archaeology and Cultural Relics of the School of History of Nanjing University. He has been engaged in archaeological study and work for 36 years. He once presided over the excavation of the Heishui National Site in Zhangye, Gansu Province, and now he is presiding over the Sino-Russian and Sino-Iranian cooperative archaeological projects. "Together, the countries visited and excavated can circle the earth."

My previous working life was extremely simple, and Professor Zhang summed it up with these key words: "teaching", "research" and "students". Now, the personal signature he wrote for his short video account @ Professor Zhang Liangren reveals a kind of playfulness that keeps pace with the times: "A food blogger who can’t archaeology is not a good professor."

Professor Zhang said with a smile that he is not a foodie. "If I score between 1 and 10, I will give myself 6 points.". However, looking through his short video account, jinghua baozi stuffed bun, boiled chicken, crispy duck with mashed taro, glutinous rice eight-treasure duck, Dongpo meat, duck blood vermicelli, firewood wonton … just look at the title, and all kinds of delicious food will come to my face.

Click on the video, and you will find that "spiritual food" is also extremely rich: try a crispy duck with taro, which is extended to the court menu of Emperor Guangxu; Ordering a cage of soup buns, he can trace the long history of the steamer for nearly 7000 years; Picking up a mouthful of duck blood vermicelli soup, he "regrets" that vermicelli soup has a history of only a few decades, but the conversation turned to prove that "the tradition of eating waterfowl in Jiangsu began 2,500 years ago" with a can of duck eggs unearthed from the mound tomb in Jurong, Jiangsu …

A few years ago, the knowledge of unpopular history, combined with Professor Zhang’s "cooking techniques", became vivid, lovely and more pyrotechnic, and quickly became numerous among young people. It is no wonder that he can be called "Lonely Gourmet" by netizens.

"People are curious and want to know where they come from and where they are going, so everyone likes to go to museums, sites and cultural relics. Archaeology is not only a key to open the historical truth, but also an entrance to explore the development law of human society. Zhang Liangren said, "Through modern food, we can introduce the historical knowledge and archaeological knowledge behind various eating habits and tell what the audience doesn’t know. This is our advantage. Academic problems should be related to the concerns of ordinary people. We are rich in knowledge, but we can’t monopolize it. 」

In fact, a lot of "high-cold" knowledge is not cold, but it is the lack of connection with the general public that makes it "unattainable." Compared with monotonous words and complicated tables, with the help of short video images of life to spread knowledge and spread the seeds of knowledge in the most interesting way, the audience can finally satisfy their wish of "being educated in a generous home" in a lively and relaxed atmosphere through one screen.

The gold content of knowledge brings great flow.

Professor Zhang made no secret that the idea of making a short video was to spread knowledge to the public on the one hand, and the original intention was to "expand the popularity", let more people know the value of archaeology and support archaeological research in more ways.

He has thought of many ways, but they can’t really solve the problem. Until last year, Zhang Liangren accidentally turned to a monograph "Diet in China Culture" in the 1970s-the editor-in-chief of this book, Professor Zhang Guangzhi, is a famous archaeologist and anthropologist in China and also a mentor of Zhang Liangren’s mentor.

From the pre-Qin Dynasty to the Han, Tang, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, this book has made a panoramic display and interpretation of China’s food culture: how the characteristics of agricultural society affect the evolution of food in this land, and how Confucian moral concepts and social organization methods determine China people’s cooking and dining habits …

The origin of his legacy has opened a new world for Zhang Liangren: a thousand years can also be seen between a meal and a ladle of drink. Taking food as the starting point, he decided to try to make videos from the media.

"I know archaeology, but I don’t know new media. Writing papers is my job, but I’m not very good at writing scripts, so I’m looking for a professional video creation team to cooperate. Before shooting, the team will first step on the spot, choose the appropriate protagonist-food, and then look for information and write scripts. After the script is written, Professor Zhang will first review the professional historical knowledge involved, and then proceed with the shooting. Finally, the team will edit, modify and polish it later.

Although the image in the video is humorous and friendly, Zhang Liangren waves his hand and laughs at himself. He is an "old pedant". It is a big problem to introduce food to the camera at once.

"How long did you shoot for the first time? "Chat, Liu Yiwei asked curiously.

"The video we shot for the first time has not been sent yet. "Professor Zhang’s partner and head of the video team, Mr. Dai, said," It’s equivalent to a waste. 」

Professor Zhang Liangren visited the video shooting scene of the store.

"In a way, I shouldn’t make videos. Professor Zhang added, "I can’t speak in front of the camera, and my expression is very stiff. So I practiced Putonghua, enunciated words and practiced various skills … It took me two months to get used to it. 」

Nowadays, although he is still a little green and cramped, he can look straight into the camera, clearly tell the history behind the food, and even make some funny expressions and actions to interact with the audience off the screen. "I want to know the preferences of ordinary people, choose how to talk to them, and present the state in front of the camera. This is a huge change for me. Until now, I am still learning. 」

With his "unique skills", Zhang Liangren has gained 76,000 fans and 526,000 likes in just over four months after he entered the short video platform, which is also a minor celebrity in social media.

However, compared with the rapidly increasing traffic figures, what makes him more happy is that more and more questions related to archaeology and history are seen in messages or private letters, "more people are interested in our archaeology"; It is the video of exploring the store that really brings gain to the store.

"It is helpful to the growth of our store’s turnover and popularity. "The boss of the soup dumpling shop where Professor Zhang recorded the video of visiting the shop said in a mouthful of Nanjing Mandarin," After Professor Zhang came, the Internet publicity was too strong. Now is the age of young people, and it will be great if they forward it on their mobile phones. Moreover, the video can continue to spread and accumulate over time. 」

"Where did the fireworks gas come from? 」

"What are the criteria for choosing a topic? "Liu Yiwei has a new question.

The answer given by the team seems quite simple: combining with what Professor Zhang can say, it can be grafted with archaeology. "We hope that the spread of knowledge will sink a little and make knowledge more pyrotechnic."

For China people, delicious food is not only a thing to eat, but also has a soothing effect. "Sometimes, what we eat is not food, but a habit and a kind of homesickness. "Cai Lan once wrote in the article.

Many times, what we remember is a connection, a connection with our family. As a teenage customer in the aforementioned soup bag shop said, "My grandmother used to make soup bags, and since her death, she hasn’t eaten that kind of (taste) … it smells like home here. 」

"In the book, I often talk about the smoke curling up, and that’s fireworks. Professor Zhang added. Walking into the small shops in the city, the favorite places of ordinary people, and the places where they eat and drink in their daily lives, the fireworks are there, and "by the way, they are also responsible for eating it."

China has been an acquaintance society for thousands of years. Once, "We have neighbors, we have relatives and friends, and we walk around and associate with each other", Liu Yiwei lamented, "From the point of view of exploring shops, we want to eat a good food. In the past, we could only ask acquaintances for information, but now we just need to turn on our mobile phones and look at your acquaintances in social media".

When you are in the urban forest made of reinforced concrete, you are overwhelmed by trivial matters and anxious life. Fortunately, people like Professor Zhang Liangren, behind the screen, talk about celebrities, worldly affairs, customs and people’s livelihood with the calmness precipitated by thousands of years of history, and take you back to appreciate the daily beauty of "nearby" life and "pursue your own fireworks".

This is a special gift in the video age.

Documentary program "Things Related to Life", produced by Tik Tok Life Service and jointly presented by Figure, has been online since December 18th. From the perspective of Liu Yiwei, a senior food program host, it explores the story that Daren discovered shops and vendors in the hidden corner of the city, and shows the influence and change of this new professional group on "nearby" life. Three different life stories show the fireworks and warm blood in the world.

Director | Wan Xiaozhang

Write a manuscript | fresh in

Editor | Xu Jing

Produced by | |FigureVideo

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Original title: Things Related to Life: Archaeology, Food and Fireworks.

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Messi’s eight golden balls will be dominated by enjoying football. Who will open a new chapter in world football in the future?

In the early morning of October 31, 36-year-old Messi won the Golden Globe Award in 2023, which was the eighth time in his career, setting a new record for the number of awards held by himself.

Messi’s 8-seat golden ball plus body according to IC photo

There is no doubt that Messi won this year’s Golden Globe Award. After all, the performance reference time of this Golden Globe Award is from August 2022 to July 2023, and FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022 is in the selection range. After leading Argentina to win the World Cup at the end of last year, Messi, who won the Golden Globe Award in the World Cup, was considered as the only winner of this year’s Golden Globe Award, not to mention that he also won the Ligue 1 and French Super Cup titles last season, and the Golden Globe Award was well deserved.

After Messi set a record of eight Golden Globe Awards, which is unprecedented and highly probable, there are two topics that the outside world is more concerned about-is this Messi’s last Golden Globe Award? Who is the next person to win the Golden Globe Award?

For the first question, Messi’s close friend Dosetti gave a positive answer on social media, saying:"The eighth and last one."Messi also said in an interview after winning the prize: "It’s incredible to win eight Golden Globes, and the rest of the time will enjoy the happiness brought by football with peace of mind." Indeed, for Messi, awards, honors and goals are no longer the goals pursued by the 36-year-old himself. He has written a legend in the history of football, and the name "Messi" has even become synonymous with football, inspiring countless young people to follow his example and bravely pursue their dreams.

For Messi, who entered the end of his career, the last player time should be to fully enjoy the game. It is for this reason that he chose to play in Miami International of the American Professional League, instead of going to Saudi Arabia for gold like Cristiano Ronaldo and Neymar. It is precisely because he is far away from the international mainstream football field of vision that it is extremely difficult for Messi to win the Golden Globe Award again in the future, unless he can lead the Argentine team to successfully defend the title in the 2026 World Cup at the age of 39. It is extremely unlikely that Messi will win the Golden Globe Award again with the performance of the AFL-he is the first Mr. Golden Globe in the 27-year history of the AFL, but he won the Golden Globe Award this year but it has nothing to do with the AFL.

Beckham presented Messi with the 8 th Golden Globe Award according to IC photo.

There are many speculations about the next Golden Globe winner. In the top three of the Golden Globe Awards, Harland and Mbappé ranked behind Messi. In his acceptance speech, Messi also mentioned two competitors, saying, "Harland and Mbappé will win the Golden Globe in the future. As I said, Harland also deserves this prize. He won the Premier League and the Champions League, and he is also the top scorer. Today, this award may be yours in the future, and I believe you will win it in the next few years! "

Of course, we can’t forget the hot Real Madrid midfielder Bellingham recently. His superb performance in Real Madrid this season has made many people regard the 20-year-old English midfielder as the next Golden Globe winner. But on the whole, Mbappé should be the biggest candidate for the "new king" of football after Messi, and besides its own strength, there is also the bonus of the French team. Now, Mbappé’s biggest shortcoming is that Paris Saint-Germain has dragged down his club data. If Mbappé can join Real Madrid in the future, it should not be surprising that he will win the Golden Globe Award in the future with the help of Real Madrid and French teams and his personal ability.

2024 is the European Cup year, and next year’s Golden Globe Awards will definitely refer more to the players’ performance in the European Cup and the Champions League. From this point of view, both Bellingham and Mbappé have great opportunities. Harland’s biggest disadvantage is that the Norwegian team has already decided to miss the European Cup in 2024. Even if it kills all sides in the club competition, it can’t appear in the European Cup, which will make Harland lose a lot of points. In the past 2022/2023 season, Harland’s performance was outstanding. He won the Champions League, the Premier League and the FA Cup with Manchester City, personally won the European Golden Boot, the Champions League Golden Boot and the Premier League Golden Boot, and was elected as the best player and the best young player in the Premier League. However, due to Messi’s performance in the World Cup, he still beat Harland.

The national team is undoubtedly the biggest shortcoming of Harland’s future "king-sealing". The overall strength of the Norwegian team is limited, and it is difficult to achieve a historic breakthrough by relying on a few world-class players such as Harland and Ed. Therefore, the biggest possibility for Harland in the future is to hit the Golden Globe Award by virtue of its performance in the League and the Champions League in the "small football year" where there is neither the World Cup nor the European Cup.

With Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo away from the mainstream league, the "Mero era" has come to an end. Even after Messi won the World Cup and eight Golden Globes, even Cristiano Ronaldo is hard to stand side by side with him in historical positioning. Next, someone is bound to open a new chapter in world football. At that time, whether it is "brilliant" or "outstanding", it is worthy of fans’ expectation.

Red Star journalist Jison

Editor Ou Peng

(Download Red Star News, and get a prize! )

Today’s football recommendation analysis score forecast Bologna VS Lazio La Palmas VS Atletico Madrid

In the 11th round of Italian first-class football league, Bologna played against Lazio at home. Bologna’s scoring efficiency is good this season, but there are many draws. In the last round, Sassuolo was tied, and all the away games were tied this season. Bologna has been unbeaten in the last 9 games, with 3 wins and 6 draws, and all three victories were won at home. Lazio beat Fiorentina 1-0 in the league on Tuesday morning, and Inmobile scored a 90-minute penalty to help the Biancocelesti score all three points. At present, Lazio has won three consecutive victories in the league, while 2 wins and 3 losses in the away game, and defeated Sassuolo as a guest to end the two-game losing streak in the away game. This season, the Biancocelesti’s attack is average, with only 13 goals scored in 10 rounds and 12 goals conceded.

Lazio won 1 win and 1 draw against Bologna last season and remained unbeaten. However, in four consecutive seasons, Lazio only scored 2 draws and 2 losses without winning, and even failed to score in the last three games. The data of this game is insufficient for Lazio’s support. After all, as a traditional strong team in the league, the tie is not easy to overestimate when its reputation and status are dominant.

Therefore, the home team, Boluo, is always in Asia, and it is expected that the match will be more exciting than the match 1 midfielder. The right pair is in charge. The performance in the field is stable and has the strength advantage, while Lazio needs to show better performance in the away game to continue its unbeaten record.

Las palmas beat Manakol 3-0 in the last round and won two consecutive victories, in good shape. The team has a strong offensive ability, scoring only 9 goals in the past 5 rounds, but the defensive quality has improved, losing 4 goals in the past 5 rounds. This season, it has achieved 4 wins, 2 draws and 5 losses, ranking 10th in the league. Sandro ramirez, Fabio Gonzá lez and others were plagued by injuries or missed the game. It must be difficult for this field to face the former bitter Atletico Madrid.

Atletico Madrid beat Aravis 2-1 in the last round, and the team’s morale is like a rainbow. So far this season, it has achieved 8 wins, 1 draw and 1 loss, and its performance is excellent, ranking third in the league. In the last five rounds, he scored a total of 12 goals, averaging 2.4 goals per game. The quality of the team’s defense is very high, and he lost 6 goals in the past five rounds. French striker Gleizman scored 7 goals, and Morata scored 6 goals, which was the main scorer of the team. At present, Victor vitolo, Depe, Mandawa, etc. in the team are plagued by injuries or absent from the game. Atletico’s players can always adapt to different competition environments and play well. Their tactical flexibility and adaptability enable them to always have an advantage in away games.

To sum up, I think Atletico Madrid will win on the road. Although we know that the away game is full of challenges, Atletico’s strength, experience and tactical flexibility all indicate that they will win this victory. I believe they will show their advantages in the competition and finally win.

A brief history of music | Regretful death, the glory of future generations! Bizet never witnessed it with his own eyes.

Carmen, the composer Bicai’s opera, is one of the highest achievements of French opera in the 19th century. Strong dramatic conflicts and touching music make Carmen popular all over the world, and it is still one of the masterpieces with the highest performance rate in the contemporary opera stage.

In the second half of 19th century, a kind of "lyric opera" between "grand opera" and "comic opera" gradually replaced the dominant position of French grand opera. Most lyric operas choose touching stories, and some familiar love stories have become opera themes. Bicai’s Carmen is the work of this period.

Carmen is adapted from French realist writer Merimee’s novella Garman, which tells the love story of Carmen and officer Don Hauser in gypsy woman.

On March 3, 1875, "Carmen" ushered in the opening night at the Opera House in Paris, but the effect was not satisfactory. At that time, some critics thought that the music of Carmen was dull and boring, and stories such as gypsies and soldiers should not be put on the stage, especially the independent and uninhibited character of the heroine Carmen ran counter to the mainstream thought at that time. Facing the criticism, Bicai, a composer, was so frustrated that he even called the opera Carmen a "100% desperate failure", so he lingered painfully in the streets of Paris all night.

Surprisingly, however, the opera Carmen was highly praised by contemporary Saint-Sang, Tchaikovsky and Debussy. Saint-Sang and Tchaikovsky predicted that "in ten years, it will become the most popular opera in the world".

However, Bicai failed to wait until this day. After the failure of the premiere of Carmen, Bicai became ill from then on. Only three months later, he died of illness at the age of 37. It was once said that Bicai died of depression because of excessive grief, but serious music historians have repeatedly corrected those sentimental statements, and they gave more objective reasons: heavy smoking made Bicai’s health poor for a long time, and he was diagnosed with throat disease and suffered from it very early. When writing Carmen, Bicai was already very weak. After many heart attacks, heart failure finally took his life.

Only one year after Bizet’s death, the performance of Carmen has gradually improved, and the meticulous description of the characters’ psychology, criticism of social reality and exotic life scenes in the drama have been loved by people. With the passage of time, the artistic value of Carmen has gradually become prominent and has become a long-lasting classic.

Source: CCTV Variety Show

A Book of the Day | Women’s Thoughts

Women’s thoughts

Author: [Japan] Ueno Chizuko

Translator: Lu Weiwei

Version: Zhejiang University Press

September 2022

Recommended index:★★★★Presenter: Qing Qingzi

In recent years, many works by Chihiro Ueno have been translated and published. During this period, there are two books, one is "Starting from Limit" and the other is "Women’s Thought" to be recommended today. Although the styles of the two books are different, after reading them, we will realize that both books are dialogues. The former is a dialogue between Ueno and Suzuki liang zi about their own confusion, while the latter is a dialogue between Ueno and her predecessors who influenced and forged her and their works.

The Thought of Women is divided into two parts. In the first part, the works of five Japanese female thinkers are selected, namely Morizaki Kazuji, Shimuli Daozi, Tanaka Zhongjin, Taeko Tomioka and Shuitian Zongzi. The second part introduces and guides five western thinkers who are more familiar to readers: michel foucault, edward said, Eve Kosovski Segivik, Joan wallach Scott and Judith Butler.

Among these thinkers, Ueno Chizuko has repeatedly expressed the important influence of Morizaki and Jiang on her. In the recommendation of Miss Tangxing written by Morizaki and Kawasaki published in June this year, Ueno once wrote: "I want to find a language that only belongs to women when women tell their experiences. What struck me was Morizaki’s words … How much influence did this man have on me? It is too difficult to estimate. " The same words also appeared in Women’s Mind: "I selected the books that I have read and gained strength from, which constitute my blood and flesh, and interpreted them … In other words, this book is my understanding and my’ creation’."

It is worth mentioning that in the dialogue between Ueno Chizuko and these thinkers, their influence on Japanese sociology, feminist/gender studies and women’s liberation movement was also introduced. Language and thought, of course, are not created out of thin air. Ueno took over the language and thought of her predecessors, and now we have taken over the book from her.

Author/Wang Qing

Editor/Li Yongbo Gong Zhaohua

Proofreading/Wang Xin

On the Definition of "Culture" and "Cultural Form"

When historians introduce "history" to people, they will first focus on how they understand the concept of "history"; Philosophers will also focus on how to understand "philosophy" when introducing their own philosophical research results to the people. As a lover and disseminator of Chinese studies, it is natural to follow the pace of the master and discuss clearly what is "Chinese studies" first. Talk about personal opinions and understanding again. Now we encounter a broader concept, that is, what is "culture"? What is "traditional culture"? What is "China culture"?

We can try to answer from two aspects: the definition of culture and the form of culture. The former mainly thinks about what the concept of culture refers to. The latter mainly thinks about how culture exists, how to form and how to develop. The concept of "form" was first used in biology and natural philosophy. In biology, it refers to the science of studying the external shape, internal structure and evolution process of objects. In natural philosophy, it refers to studying the form, structure and characteristics of philosophy, specifically, understanding philosophy from the aspects of philosophy research purpose, research object and expression form. The form of culture is to understand a certain culture from the perspectives of externally visible existence form, internally observable existence structure and cultural development and change.

We can think that "cultural form" is a concept derived from "natural form". Although the elements are different from each other, we can still understand "culture" through basic elements such as cultural purpose, characteristics, structure, function and position. That is to say, people gradually understand the "basic connotation" of culture through its "external existence form". In a broad sense, "culture" refers to the spiritual wealth created by the whole human society and its spiritual production capacity; In a narrow sense, "culture" refers to the concrete existence of philosophy, literature, art, education, science and customs. Generally speaking, discussing culture is about a specific culture, rather than discussing the sum of all human cultures in a macro way.

The characteristics of different cultural forms are mainly reflected by theoretical characteristics, clients, forms of expression, social influence and people’s position. The basic way for people to know "culture" is also from these elements. No matter what kind of culture it is, it has its own specific people’s position and service object. For example, Taoism regards "Tao" as the subject of the world, while "people" as the object of the world, and based on the basic position of "people", it comes to the value judgment of "following only the Tao". Confucianism regards "Heaven" as the main body of the world and "Son of Heaven" as the master of the world, and based on the basic position of long-term stability, it comes to the value judgment of "monarch, monarch, minister and minister". There are obvious differences in the starting point and ending point of thinking between the two cultures, which we call the difference of "cultural form" in "people’s position" and "service object"

People know and distinguish things through "differences". If there is no difference, all people look at the same face and all things look the same, then people can’t know the world. Among all the differences, there is a kind of "unity" in treating others, that is, all cultures serve people in the final analysis, but specifically serve the whole mankind? Or serve some people? Is it for the majority of people? Or serve a few people? From this, we can judge the "pattern" of a certain culture, from which we can see the "mind" and "realm" of a certain kind of people.

"For whom" is just a way to divide "cultural form". According to the observer’s point of view, as well as the differences in cognitive purposes and cognitive methods, there are more forms to divide cultural form. For example, literary and art circles and scientific circles, such as literature and audio-visual arts, such as materialism and idealism, such as hegelianism and Marxism, such as Taoist culture and Confucian culture, such as traditional culture and modern culture. It is worth noting that any "division" is an artificial division, which is divided by individuals according to certain needs and certain characteristics. It does not mean that there is a natural insurmountable gap between them. From a macro point of view, "culture" is always a whole, but it shows different characteristics in specific forms.

Finally, let’s discuss the issues of "cultural development" and "evolution of cultural forms". Culture is not static, let alone natural, but appears with the emergence of human society and develops with the development of society. Its fundamental driving force comes from the development of "economic base", which is Marx’s viewpoint and the basic theory of "historical materialism", that is, "economic base determines superstructure". The degree of economic development determines the degree of cultural development, which in turn promotes or hinders economic development. It looks similar to it, but actually the opposite view is "economic materialism" or "vulgar view of economic history", which is essentially a misinterpretation of "dialectical historical materialism". This view simply discusses "the economic base determines the superstructure" and denies "the reaction of the economic base of the superstructure". When looking at the issue of "cultural development", it often emphasizes the level of economic development, but does not discuss the degree of political civilization and ideological development.

Why should we use western culture to transform our culture?

Carry forward excellent traditional culture under the guidance of Marxism.

Under the guidance of Marxism, critically absorb western culture.